Aldehydes are known for their sweet smells and, at times, pungent tones. Aldehydes are present in almost all scents.
Many are found in natural materials including citrus rind, rose, citronella oil, and cinnamon bark. However, they can also be produced synthetically in a lab.
The production of these synthetic materials means that almost any aroma can be created in a lab, from pine essence, lily of the valley, to the smell of fresh linen.
- What is Aldehyde?
- What Does Aldehyde Smell Like?
- What Scent Family is Aldehyde?
- What are the Benefits of Aldehyde?
- Is Aldehyde Feminine or Masculine Scent?
- Best Perfumes with Aldehyde Notes
- The Bottom Line
What is Aldehyde?
In organic chemistry, an aldehyde is an organic compound with a carbonyl functional group. This group is made up of a carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom via a single covalent bond, and an oxygen atom with a double covalent bond giving them the chemical formula: -CH=O.
The general formula for an aldehyde is R-CH=O. This aldehyde group is occasionally called the formyl or methanoyl group.
Aldehydes are organic compounds that are the result of partial oxidation. They’re colorless, flammable, and volatile liquids.
There are other organic compounds that also contain an aldehyde moiety including ketones and carboxylic acids. Ketones also smell pleasant and are used in certain food flavoring and perfume formulations.
When a composite containing a carbonyl group (carbon atoms) doesn’t have a hydrogen molecule bonded to either of its two remaining bonds it’s a ketone. Generally speaking, aldehydes smell stronger and more pleasant than ketones.
To better understand the chemistry lessons behind aldehyde, read this great article on “Britannica Science”.
What Does Aldehyde Smell Like?
Different aldehydes have different scents and smells. Aldehydes with a lower molecular weight have a stronger, more pungent aroma resembling rotting fruit, whereas those with a higher molecular weight have a far more pleasant fragrance, and produce wonderful aromas when used in perfumes.
Those used in modern perfume are called aliphatic or fatty aldehydes. Aldehyde smells citrusy (reminiscent of orange rind) and can also be soapy and metallic, while strawberry aldehyde tends to burst with floral notes.
What Scent Family is Aldehyde?
Aldehydes are a fragrance family in their own right. Aldehydes’ smell can vary dramatically. The different-smelling aldehydes which can be produced make them a perfume lovers’ dream owing to the diversity of the odor profile.
C7, also known as heptanol, occurs naturally in clary sage and has a herby, fresh smell. C8, also known as octanol, has a smell akin to oranges.
On the other hand, C11 has a soapy, clean aroma, and is naturally present in coriander leaf oil.
What are the Benefits of Aldehyde?
While straight-chain aldehydes are used in the perfume industry, particularly anisic aldehyde which is known for its nutty, almondy notes, formaldehyde is the aldehyde most commonly used for industry means.
Formaldehyde is used to preserve biological and anatomical specimens. It’s also used to sterilize surgical equipment.
Cinnamaldehyde is used for treating common diseases including the common cold, and diarrhea. Other types of this carboxylic acid compound are used in food flavorings, cosmetics, and tire and rubber manufacturing.
Is Aldehyde Feminine or Masculine Scent?
Aldehydic fragrance is a diverse realm and can create masculine, feminine, and unisex scent profiles. Many aldehydes create that signature scent people swear by.
Having recently grown in popularity, aldehydes are rapidly debunking the “old lady” myth, balancing a delicious floral note with fresh, clean fragrances as seen in Estee Lauder’s White Linen.
The first appearance of aldehydes in a commercial fragrance came in a perfume called Reve D’Or or Golden Dream by Armingeat in 1905. It was not until their inclusion in the now iconic Chanel no 5 perfume that they were recognized as bringing interesting things to the industry.
The rumor goes that Ernest Beaux accidentally poured a large number of aldehydes into a perfume he was creating. Mademoiselle Chanel approved, and thus Chanel No. 5 became the first fragrance of the new world to incorporate this ingredient.
This famous perfume later became a firm favorite with Hollywood pin-up Marilyn Monroe.
Best Perfumes with Aldehyde Notes
1. Frederic Malle Iris Poudre
Launched in 2000, this feminine, floral scent combines ylang ylang, carnation, violet, magnolia, aldehydes, musk, sandalwood, and vetiver to name but a few.
The result is a classic perfume.
2. Penhaligon’s Halfeti Eau de Parfum
Featuring head notes of grapefruit, bergamot, and armoise, Penhaligon’s expertly weaves through heart notes of cardamom with leather, oud, and amber base notes.
3. Henry Jacques Oudh Imperial Pure Perfume
If price is no limit, Henry Jacques’s perfume is an experience. Retailing at well over 2000 dollars for 30ml, aldehydes are married flawlessly with oud to entice the senses of any perfume lover.
The Bottom Line
A colorless liquid with almost limitless potential, the discovery of aromatic aldehydes revolutionized the perfume industry.
Today, trace amounts can be found in almost all perfumes. Waxy, soapy, floral, or metallic, there’s a member of the aldehyde family for all.
Aldehydes are some of the most diverse ingredients discovered in the perfume industry, and quite simply they make perfume smell good.
It’s no wonder that so many perfumers now swear by and love aldehydes.